Video Tutorials by Timothy Nathan

In this series of video tutorials, PPL/IR’s Timothy Nathan gives insight and guidance on instrument flying and and IFR in Europe.  Although these videos are primarily aimed at new and aspiring Instrument Pilots, Timothy has valuable tips and strategies for even seasoned instrument pilots.

Basic Instrument Flying

In this video, Timothy Nathan of PPL/IR explores the fundamentals of instrument flight, including the basic instrument scan and how reliably to fly with accuracy, precision and ease.

Intercepting and tracking

An introduction to IFR tracking of NDB, VOR and GNSS on RBI, RMI, OBS, HSI and eHSI by Timothy Nathan.


This video, prepared by Timothy Nathan, is a short introduction to flying holds in light aircraft. It’s aimed at those preparing for their instrument rating flight test, and for more experienced GA IFR qualified pilots looking for some revision.

Final Approaches

In this video, Timothy Nathan of PPL/IR explains how to fly a final approach (whether precision or non-precision) calmly, accurately and safely.

Autopilots in Light GA Aircraft (Deutsch, français, español)

This video offers a very quick run-through of the autopilots we find in light aircraft.

What model of autopilot is it? Are the instructions in the POH?
• What methods exist to disconnect it?
• Where is the circuit breaker?
• Is it highlighted?

Does it have electric trim?
• What methods exist to disconnect it?
• Where is the breaker?
• Is it highlighted?

What is the primary input source (attitude or rate of turn)?
• What are its failure modes?
• How can it be monitored?

Under what circumstances will the autopilot disengage itself?

What pre-flight checks are required?

What limitations does the autopilot have?
• Minimum height?
• Speed envelope?
• Icing?

Does it have Control Wheel Steering?
• What happens if you press the control wheel steering when the autopilot is off?
• What modes will CWS place the autopilot into after use?
• If the aircraft is in an unusual attitude when CWS is released, what will the autopilot do?

Does it have a flight director?
• How do you engage it?
• How do you disengage it?
• How do you go from flight director to full autopilot and back again?

Does it have any kind of envelope protection?
• Does it protect against pitch angles or airspeed excursions (or both)?
• Is that protection active when the autopilot is off?
• Can that protection be overridden?

Does it have a yaw damper
• What are its limitations?
• Are there any circumstances when it is required, recommended or prohibited?

How can the autopilot be engaged?
• What mode will it be in after being engaged?

Does it have a level button?
• If not, how do you quickly enable wings level and altitude hold modes?

What modes does it have?
• Can horizontal modes be engaged independently of vertical ones?
• Are approach and nav mode armed or entered directly?
• How do you maintain current heading whilst intercepting a nav or approach course?
• Does approach mode glideslope capture require a certain amount of time with the localiser captured?

An Introduction to PBN

This video introduces Performance-Based Navigation, or PBN. Timothy Nathan of PPL/IR explains the fundamental concepts, introduces the acronym soup associated with PBN, and talks through how to fly PBN procedures.

ADF Automatic Direction Finder - the onboard receiver of NDB signals
AIRAC Aeronautical Information Regulation And Control - the monthly update system for navigation data
APR Approach Mode - the original RNP approach, now called LNAV
Baro-VNAV Barometric Vertical Navigation - the use of barometry to synthesise and display a glidepath
BeiDou The Chinese GNSS system
CDI Course Deviation Indicator - shows a left-right indicator on the screen, in an HSI or OBS instrument. Also the button to select what information - VOR/Localiser or GPS is shown by the CDI indicator.
DME Distance Measurement Equipment
EFATO Engine Failure After Take-Off
EGNOS European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service - the European SBAS
FPL Flightplan
FSD Full Scale Deflection
G1000 Garmin integrated flight management system
G175 Garmin GNSS navigator
Galileo European GNSS
GNS430 Early Garmin navigator without SBAS capability
GNS430W Obsolescent Garmin navigator with SBAS capability
GNSS Global Navigation Satellite System
GPSS Aircraft steering based on GNSS Navigator guidance
GTN Modern Garmin Navigator
IAF Initial Approach Fix - the start of an instrument procedure.
ICAO International Civil Aviation Organisation - Administers and governs Civil Aviation Internationally
IFD Modern Avidyne Navigator
ILS Instrument Landing System
INS Inertial Navigation System
INTEG Integrity warning
IRU Intertial Reference Unit
ISA International Standard Atmosphere
L/VNAV Annunciation of LNAV/VNAV
LNAV Approach providing lateral guidance only
LNAV/VNAV Approach providing certified vertical guidance in addition to LNAV
LNAV+V Approach providing uncertified advisory vertical guidance in addition to LNAV
LOI Loss of Integrity
LPV Approach providing ILS precision
MSG Message
NDB Non-Directional Beacon - a conventional Radio Beacon
Overlay Conventional procedure coded into GNSS navigator. Not approved in Europe.
PBN Performance Based Navigation
RAIM Receiver autonomous integrity monitoring - Checks GNSS integrity with no external support
RIMS EGNOS Ranging and Integrity Monitoring Stations
RNAV Area Navigation
RNP Required Navigational Performance - RNAV with fault awareness and reporting
RNP AR Approach which can only be flown with special authorisation
Roll Steering Aircraft steering based on GNSS Navigator guidance
RVR Runway Visual Range
SBAS Satellite-based Augmentation System
SID Standard Instrument Departure
STAR Standard Arrival Procedure
SUSP Suspend Mode
VOR VHF Omnidirectional Range - a conventional Radio Beacon

Let’s Get Real

In this video, Timothy Nathan of PPL/IR talks through the reality of IFR planning and flying in Europe.

  • To learn more about PPL/IR Europe and the many benefits, please click here.
  • To read our publication, Instrument Pilot, please click here.
  • To learn more about Getting the Rating, please click here.
  • How to use the Instrument Rating, please click here.
  • Or feel free just to look around our website.